Abstract: At present, the intensity of discussion of new methods of military and non-military inter-state confrontation has intensified. One of the new concepts is the so-called "hybrid war". Many Western theorists attribute to our country authorship and active use of this approach in modern conditions.
The article analyzes the main components of "hybrid" actions and, based on the analysis of historical experience, concluded that these approaches have deep historical roots. This is not about classic mercenaries, namely, "hybrid" actions, when the customer is hiding and the purpose of attracting hired formations, and military actions are accompanied by massive information attacks. Examples of such actions, as shown by historical analysis, can be found already in wars of the XV−XVII centuries. And the leader in their organization was not our country, but the states of the Anglo-Saxon bloc.
Based on the analysis of the experience of wars and armed conflicts, the conclusion is drawn that the threat of "hybrid" action is extremely urgent now and in the foreseeable future. Moreover, in the long term, other approaches to the organization of interstate confrontation, encountered earlier in history, but taking into account the new conditions for the development of civilization, may be used. A conclusion is drawn on the need to ensure Russia's readiness for such threats.
Abstract: The analysis of the Ship's Lists of 1904 and 1908 was carried out, and their comparison with the construction documentation of the Votkinsk plant. It is concluded that in the period between the publication of the Ship's Lists there was a renumbering of the ships of the Kronstadt port. The presence in the 1904 List of barge № 26, suitable for the new numbering, suggests that this process began already in 1904.
Analysis of Votkinsk products built in 1901-04 allows us to assert that, in all likelihood, two dry cargo barges built in 1901, before commissioning, were revised at the Pullman plant, which is why it is listed as the builder of both ships. The water-filled boat built in 1903 as part of the Baltic Fleet is absent both in 1904 and in 1908. However, since the factory documentation unambiguously indicates its construction, it can be assumed that in 1903 the plant did not build, but conversion into a water-filled boat of a 70-foot barge, previously built for the Sveaborg port. This fact can explain the absence of a vessel with suitable characteristics in both lists – they duplicated the old data of the barge, only indicating that it was a water-filled boat of the Kronstadt port. In addition, this explains the coincidence of the contract price and the volume of work performed in the table of V.N. Stupishin – The Maritime Department paid for the work after the fact.
Abstract: Using the analysis of the weight load of ships allows us to obtain new facts about the history of the creation of British cruisers in the first half of the twentieth century. The work proves that at the Washington Conference the British did not offer to build cruisers, the parameters of which were taken as a basis from the "Hawkins"-class cruisers. The weak armor of the "Kent"-class cruisers is explained by the heavy weight of the 203 mm cannon turrets and the hull. The speed of the order of 32 knots of the "Kent"-class cruisers was obtained due to the increase in the specific power of the power plant in comparison with the power plant of the "Hawkins"-class cruisers. Enhanced armor on cruisers built after the "Kent"-class cruisers was obtained by reducing the weight of the weapons, power plant and hull. Reducing the displacement of cruisers of the "Fiji" type was obtained not only due to a denser layout, but also due to a decrease in the weight of the hull and armor.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of international relations on the Balkan Peninsula on the eve of the First World War. Russian diplomacy has traditionally considered Orthodox Serbia as its main ally on the Balkan Peninsula. Russian-Serbian relations and Serbia's relations with neighboring states were among the key topics of international relations on the eve of the First World War. Due to the active foreign policy of Austria-Hungary in the Balkans, Serbia has repeatedly raised questions about military assistance from Russia. The policy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, aimed at strengthening its influence in the Balkans, contributed to the destabilization of the situation and the beginning of hostilities.
Abstract: This article examines the activities of the Sochi Defense Committee, which was aimed at assisting the active units of the Red Army in organizing and strengthening defense on the Black sea coast, in the northern spurs and passes of the main Caucasian ridge. The powers of the Defense Committee extended on the territory of Sochi, Shapsug and Adler districts. Its activities were aimed at organizing, coordinating and controlling works of a defensive nature – the construction of strategic objects: roads along which the Red Army units were supplied with ammunition and food, as well as defensive lines and airfields. Besides this, the activities of the Defense Committee contributed to the organization and combat readiness of fighter battalions, partisan detachments, and units of the local air defense. During the period when the leadership of the Krasnodar Krai and regional institutions were located on the Black Sea coast (august 1942 – february 1943), Sochi was the administrative center of the Krasnodar Krai.
There were used as sources the materials and documents of the Central archive of the Ministry of defense of the Russian Federation, the Center for documentation of the Modern History of the Krasnodar Krai and the municipal government agency “Archive of Sochi”. Additionally, the memoirs of soviet military leaders, foreign authors, collections of archival documents, monographs, articles and publications of soviet and russian researchers were involved.
The author comes to the conclusion that the activities of the Defense Committee corresponded to the goals and objectives of its creation, i.e. to assist the active units of the Red Army in organizing and strengthening defense on the Black Sea coast, in the northern spurs and on the passes of the main Caucasian ridge.
Abstract: This article discusses the creation of the Lazarev group of troops as a separate operational unit in early October 1942, as well as its combat operations. The creation of the group was preceded by the beginning of the offensive of the Wehrmacht troops on Tuapse under the code name “Attica”, during which the command of the Soviet troops reasonably believed that it was possible to strike German units in the direction of the Pshekh River valley and then through the Hokuch pass along the valley of the r. Psezuapse in the Lazarevskoye area.
In October 1942, the bloody fighting took place in the area of Maratuki and the Oplepen city. In November 1942, due to the deterioration of weather conditions, the battles were positional in nature, and the Lazarev group of troops was reorganized into the 16th separate rifle corps. In addition to the positional battles, the corps units were mostly engaged in the construction of roads to improve the supply of ammunition and food to the corps. In December 1942, as a result of the current situation, the probability of an offensive by the Wehrmacht troops to the Black Sea coast was excluded. In this regard, the existence of the Lazarevsky direction group became superfluous, parts of the 16th separate rifle regiment were transferred to the 46th Army, and the corps management became part of the 18th Army.
The Headquarters of the Supreme High Command rejected the plan of an offensive operation proposed by the command of the Transcaucasian Front from the Lazarev group area by the forces of the 46th Army in the direction of Absheron, Maykop.